1979 : la variole est éradiquée

theatlantic:

The Last Smallpox Patient on Earth

On December 9, 1979, the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication signed their names to the statement that “smallpox has been eradicated from the world.” 

It was the first time that a disease had been banished from the earth by the planning and action of the world’s public health professionals. And it became a model for later (ongoing) efforts to eradicate polio and several lesser known diseases.

The disease only spread from human to human, so there had been an unbroken chain of infection for more than three millennia. In the 1960s, before the eradication program, more than half a million people died every year from the disease.

But in country after country, vaccination and isolation programs lowered rates of infection until the numbers dwindled to one person who was infected, the last patient.

Read more. [Image: World Health Organization]

(Reblogué depuis theatlantic)

Poumon d’acier

Dated May 23, 1958, the caption of this photo reads “Instructing nurses on the use of respirator for a polio patient.”

On October 12, 1928, the negative pressure ventilator, commonly known as the iron lung, was used clinically for the first time at Boston Children’s Hospital.

The iron lung is a device designed to assist with the breathing those who have either lost control of their diaphragm muscles or whose muscles don’t have the strength to breathe. It does this by creating an airtight seal around the body of a patient and then periodically increasing and decreasing the pressure exerted on their chest, thus moving their diaphragm for them and allowing them to breathe. 

by archivesfoundation

(Reblogué depuis corporisfabrica)

Figures anatomiques, Antonio Cattani, XVIIIe siècle 

thegetty:

What Beautiful Muscles You Have

Antonio Cattani created these engravings in the 1780s based on sculptures by Ercole Lelli, who examined at least 50 cadavers in preparation. The sculptures were created for the “anatomical theater” of the medical school at the University of Bologna, a room dedicated to the teaching of anatomy through dissections of human bodies. The engravings helped art students master the parts of the body.

More on these life-size engravings, new in the collection.

Anatomical Figures, 1780 (left) and 1781 (right), Antonio Cattani. The Getty Research Institute

(Reblogué depuis scientificillustration)

Alien chez le psy

herossurcanape:

Alienne pour qu’elle revienne. Dessin Matt Dunhill textes wandrille

(Reblogué depuis herossurcanape)
Petite vérole ou variole
Enfant atteint de la variole ou petite vérole vers 1860. “Avoir été marqué par les cavités d’un moule à gaufres, c’est exactement l’effet que produit la petite vérole en laissant des cicatrices sur la peau des malades. Traiter quelqu’un de moule à gaufres, c’est désigner ainsi le porteur de ce mal.” (Mary Evans/Rue des Archives).
[Source : Insultes, jurons, Haddock en manie plus de 300 ! Jean-Louis Beaucarnot, p. 110, dans Le rire de Tintin - Le secret du génie comique d’Hergé, Hors-série L’Express-BeauxArts, 2014.]

Petite vérole ou variole

Enfant atteint de la variole ou petite vérole vers 1860. “Avoir été marqué par les cavités d’un moule à gaufres, c’est exactement l’effet que produit la petite vérole en laissant des cicatrices sur la peau des malades. Traiter quelqu’un de moule à gaufres, c’est désigner ainsi le porteur de ce mal.” (Mary Evans/Rue des Archives).

[Source : Insultes, jurons, Haddock en manie plus de 300 ! Jean-Louis Beaucarnot, p. 110, dans Le rire de Tintin - Le secret du génie comique d’Hergé, Hors-série L’Express-BeauxArts, 2014.]

Quel cornet !

Le scientifique russe Konstantin Tsiolkovski, utilise, vers 1930, un cornet acoustique aux dimensions exceptionnelles (Akg-images/Interfoto/Karger-Decker).

[Source : Le cornet acoustique ou l’art de jouer de la surdité, Suzanne Gervais, p. 75, dans Le rire de Tintin - Le secret du génie comique d’Hergé, Hors-série L’Express-BeauxArts, 2014.]

Os et ligaments des pieds, 1831

The bones and ligaments of the dorsal (left) and plantar (right) surfaces of the foot.
By Nicolas Henri Jacob from ‘Traité complet de l’anatomie de l’homme’ by Marc Jean Bourgery, 1831.

scienceyoucanlove Source

(Reblogué depuis scienceyoucanlove)

La vignette définitivement supprimée

La vignette médicament supprimée

blogdermatologue:

La vignette définitivement supprimée

image

Le mardi 1er juillet 2014 la vignette a disparu officiellement.
Elle devait déjà officiellement disparaître le 1er juillet 2012 !.

Celle-ci a été créée et incorporée aux emballages médicamenteux en 1952 mais c’est en 1977 que la première vignette adhésive est apparue sur les boîtes de médicaments. Puis progressivement divers types de vignettes ont vu le jour, orange puis blanches et bleues pour…

View On WordPress

(Reblogué depuis blogdermatologue)

DOES YOUR LABORATORY GLOW? 

from humanoidhistory:

DOES YOUR LABORATORY GLOW? — Workplace safety poster from the National Institutes of Health.

(National Library of Medicine)

(Reblogué depuis humanoidhistory)

La psychologie sociale des neurones

neurosciencestuff:

The Social Psychology of Nerve Cells

The functional organization of the central nervous system depends upon a precise architecture and connectivity of distinct types of neurons. Multiple cell types are present within any brain structure, but the rules governing their positioning, and the molecular mechanisms mediating those rules, have been relatively unexplored.

A new study by UC Santa Barbara researchers demonstrates that a particular neuron, the cholinergic amacrine cell, creates a “personal space” in much the same way that people distance themselves from one another in an elevator. In addition, the study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that this feature is heritable and identifies a genetic contributor to it, pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (Pttg1).

Patrick Keeley, a postdoctoral scholar in Benjamin Reese’s laboratory at UCSB’s Neuroscience Research Institute, has been using the retina as a model system for exploring such principles of developmental neurobiology. The retina is ideal because this portion of the central nervous system lends itself to such spatial analysis. 

“Populations of neurons in the retina are laid out in single strata within this layered structure, lending themselves to accurate quantitation and statistical analysis,” explained Keeley. “Rather than being distributed as regular lattices of nerve cells, populations in the retina appear to abide by a simple rule, that of minimizing proximity to other cells of the same type. We would like to understand how such populations create and maintain such spacing behavior.”

To address this, Keeley and colleagues quantified the regularity in the population of a particular type of amacrine cell in the mouse retina. They did so in 26 genetically distinct strains of mice and found that every strain exhibited this same self-spacing behavior but that some strains did so more efficiently than others. Amacrine cells are retinal interneurons that form connections between other neurons and regulate bipolar cell output.

“The regularity in the patterning of these amacrine cells showed little variation within each strain, while showing conspicuous variation between the strains, indicating a heritable component to this trait,” said Keeley.

“This itself was something of a surprise, given that the patterning in such populations has an apparently stochastic quality to it,” said Reese, a professor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences. Stochastic systems are random and are analyzed, at least in part, using probability theory.

This strain variation in the regularity of this cellular patterning showed a significant linkage to a location in the genome on chromosome 11, where the researchers identified Pttg1, previously unknown to play any role in the retina.

Working in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis, Keeley’s team demonstrated that the expression of this gene varies across the 26 strains of mice and that there was a positive correlation between gene expression and regularity. They then identified a mutation in this gene that itself correlated with expression levels and with regularity. Working with colleagues at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, the team also demonstrated directly that this mutation controlled gene expression.   

“Pttg1 has diverse functions, being an oncogene for pituitary tumors, and is known to have regulatory functions orchestrating gene expression elsewhere in the body,” explained Keeley. “Within this class of retinal neurons, it should be regulating the way in which cells integrate signals from their immediate neighbors, translating that information to position the cell farthest from those neighbors.” Future studies should decipher the genetic network controlled by Pttg1 that mediates such nerve-cell spacing.

(Reblogué depuis neurosciencestuff)

 

A Bionic, Mind-Controlled Arm, From the Inventor of the Segway

theatlantic:

The Segway was supposed to change everything … until it became the preferred transportation of walking tours and shopping mall security. But now its inventor, Dean Kamen, is back with a new creation that might be slightly more revolutionary.

Enter the DEKA limb, the first FDA-approved robotic arm that’s powered by the wearer’s mind. Electrodes attached to the arm near the prosthesis detect muscle contraction, and those signals are then interpreted into specific movements by a computer, the FDA announced on Friday.

"The device is modular so that it can be fitted to people who’ve suffered any degree of limb loss, from an entire arm to a hand," Bloomberg Businessweek reported. ”Six ‘grip patterns’ allow wearers to drink a cup of water, hold a cordless drill or pick up a credit card or a grape, among other functions.”

Read more. [Image: DARPA]

(Reblogué depuis theatlantic)